Further rapid expansion of the species in Lithuanian lakes and ri

Further rapid expansion of the species in Lithuanian lakes and rivers seems very possible.”
“Specialisms on resources and for niches, leading to specialization, have been construed to be tantamount to speciation and vice versa, while the occurrence of true generalism in nature has also been questioned. We argue that generalism in resource use, biotope occupancy, and niche breadth not only exists, but also forms a crucial part in the evolution of specialists, representing a vital force in speciation and a more effective insurance against extinction. We model the part played by generalism and specialism in speciation and illustrate how a balance may be maintained between the number

of specialists selleck chemicals and generalists within taxa. The balance occurs as an ongoing cycle arising from turnover in the production of specialists and generalists, speciation, and species extinction. The nature of the balance depends Crenigacestat research buy on the type of resources exploited, biotopes, and niche space occupied. These vary between different regions and create taxonomic biases towards generalists or specialists. We envisage that the process may be sympatric/parapatric, although it is more likely

initiated by allopatry driven by abiotic forces. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 104, 725-737.”
“Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material presents a readily available resource in the study of various biomarkers. There has been interest in whether the storage period has significant effect on the extracted macromolecules. Thus, in this study, we investigated if the storage period had an effect on the quantity/quality of the extracted nucleic acids and proteins. We systematically examined the quality/quantity of genomic DNA, total RNA, and total protein in the FFPE blocks of malignant tumors of lung, thyroid, and salivary gland that had been stored over several years. We show that there is no significant difference between macromolecules extracted from blocks stored over 11-12 years, 5-7 years, or 1-2 years in comparison to the current year blocks.”
“The

nucleus accumbens is a forebrain region responsible for drug reward and goal-directed CHIR-99021 research buy behaviors. It has long been believed that drugs of abuse exert their addictive properties on behavior by altering the strength of synaptic communication over long periods of time. To date, attempts at understanding the relationship between drugs of abuse and synaptic plasticity have relied on the high-frequency long-term potentiation model of T.V. Bliss & T. Lomo [(1973) Journal of Physiology, 232, 331356]. We examined synaptic plasticity using spike-timing-dependent plasticity, a stimulation paradigm that reflects more closely the in vivo firing patterns of mouse core nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons and their afferents.

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