oxydans WSH-003 with an optimal poly(A/T) tail under the constitu

oxydans WSH-003 with an optimal poly(A/T) tail under the constitutive promoter P-tufB, the titer and the productivity of L-sorbose were enhanced by 36.3% and 25.0%, respectively, in a 1-L fermenter. Immobilization of G. oxydans-sldhAB6 cells further

improved the L-sorbose titer by 33.7% after 20 days of semi-continuous fed-batch fermentation. Conclusions: The artificial poly(A/T) tails could significantly enhance the mRNA abundance of BIX 01294 chemical structure the sldhAB. Immobilized G. oxydans-sldhAB6 cells could further enlarge the positive effect caused by enhanced mRNA abundance of the sldhAB.”
“Antigenic variation of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei operates by monoallelic expression of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from a collection of multiple telomeric expression sites (ESs). Each of these ESs harbours a long polycistronic transcription unit containing several expression site-associated genes (ESAGs). ESAG4 copies encode bloodstream stage-specific adenylyl cyclases (AC) and belong to a larger gene family of around 80 members, the majority of which, termed genes related to ESAG4 (GRESAG4s), are not encoded in ESs and are expressed constitutively

in the life cycle. Here we report that ablation of ESAG4 from the active ES did not affect parasite growth, neither in culture Navitoclax cell line nor upon rodent infection, and did not significantly change total AC activity. In contrast, inducible RNAi-mediated knock-down of an AC subfamily that includes ESAG4 and two ESAG4-like GRESAG4 (ESAG4L) genes, decreased total AC activity and induced a lethal phenotype linked to impaired cytokinesis. In the ?esag4 line compensatory upregulation of apparently functionally redundant ESAG4L genes was observed, suggesting that the ESAG4/ESAG4L-subfamily ACs are involved in the control of cell division. How deregulated adenylyl cyclases or cAMP might impair cytokinesis is discussed.”
“To ascertain the in vitro genotoxicity of danthron and its potential mechanism of action, we performed an Ames test, a cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and a comet assay

in Balb/c GW786034 mouse 3T3 cells. The Ames test revealed that danthron was mutagenic only toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102 in the presence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Danthron (25,50 and 10011 mu g/ml) increased the frequencies of micronuclear cells with or without S9 mix, and the comet length, tail length and Olive tail moment in comet assays without S9 mix in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated the in vitro genotoxicity of danthron and that 3T3 cells are capable of activating danthron. When NADP was replaced by MAD in the S9 mix, danthron remained mutagenic toward strain TA102. The addition of dicoumarol, a DT-diaphorase inhibitor, decreased the number of danthron-induced histidine revertants by 35-39%, indicating that DT-diaphorase is involved in the metabolic activation of danthron in the presence of NADH as an electron donor.

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