Alkalization increased relative cellulose content and exhibited more crystalline due to a rearrangement of the crystalline regions. It also prolonged the degradation of the wheat straw fiber at higher temperatures due to the increased crystallinity of cellulose. Compared with alkalization, acetylation had more effect on the thermal and chemical stability in the wheat straw fiber contributing to a formation of ester bonding. MAPP improved the thermal stability partly because of a lower grafted
ratio of maleic anhydride. Acetylation and MAPP treatment both decreased the crystallinity of the wheat straw fiber. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3049-3056, 2009″
“Global climate is changing and food production
is Selleck ABT737 very sensitive to weather and climate variations. Global assessments of climate change impacts on food production have been made since the early 1990s, initially with little attention to the uncertainties involved. Although there has been abundant analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on the climate system, uncertainties related BIBF1120 to the way climate change projections are scaled down as appropriate for different analyses and in modelling crop responses to climate change, have been neglected. This review paper mainly addresses uncertainties in crop impact modelling and possibilities to reduce them. We specifically aim to (i) show ranges of projected climate change-induced impacts on crop yields, (ii) give recommendations on Blebbistatin inhibitor use of emission scenarios, climate models, regionalization and ensemble crop model
simulations for different purposes and (iii) discuss improvements and a few known unknowns’ affecting crop impact projections.”
“Selenium (Se) is a key component of iodinases; higher Se levels are associated with lower titers of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Pregnancy exerts profound effects on thyroid function and autoimmunity. To assess the relationship of urine Se levels with thyroid function and autoimmunity in pregnant women residing in Athens, Greece, we studied prospectively 47 euthyroid women in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies (mean age + SD: 30+ 5 years) in each trimester, measuring urine Se levels, urine iodine, plasma thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine and triiodothyronine (FT4 and FT3), as well as levels of anti-TPO antibodies. Changes of the measured parameters were assessed over each trimester; thyroid parameters were assessed with relation to Se levels. Urine Se dropped by the third trimester, whereas urine iodine did not change appreciably during pregnancy. TSH and anti-TPO did not show appreciable changes; FT4 and FT3 gradually decreased as the pregnancy advanced. No relationship between urine Se levels and anti-TPO was found. During pregnancy, changes in urine Se levels accompany mild changes in thyroid function.