Alkalization increased relative cellulose content and exhibited m

Alkalization increased relative cellulose content and exhibited more crystalline due to a rearrangement of the crystalline regions. It also prolonged the degradation of the wheat straw fiber at higher temperatures due to the increased crystallinity of cellulose. Compared with alkalization, acetylation had more effect on the thermal and chemical stability in the wheat straw fiber contributing to a formation of ester bonding. MAPP improved the thermal stability partly because of a lower grafted

ratio of maleic anhydride. Acetylation and MAPP treatment both decreased the crystallinity of the wheat straw fiber. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3049-3056, 2009″
“Global climate is changing and food production

is Selleck ABT737 very sensitive to weather and climate variations. Global assessments of climate change impacts on food production have been made since the early 1990s, initially with little attention to the uncertainties involved. Although there has been abundant analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on the climate system, uncertainties related BIBF1120 to the way climate change projections are scaled down as appropriate for different analyses and in modelling crop responses to climate change, have been neglected. This review paper mainly addresses uncertainties in crop impact modelling and possibilities to reduce them. We specifically aim to (i) show ranges of projected climate change-induced impacts on crop yields, (ii) give recommendations on Blebbistatin inhibitor use of emission scenarios, climate models, regionalization and ensemble crop model

simulations for different purposes and (iii) discuss improvements and a few known unknowns’ affecting crop impact projections.”
“Selenium (Se) is a key component of iodinases; higher Se levels are associated with lower titers of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Pregnancy exerts profound effects on thyroid function and autoimmunity. To assess the relationship of urine Se levels with thyroid function and autoimmunity in pregnant women residing in Athens, Greece, we studied prospectively 47 euthyroid women in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies (mean age + SD: 30+ 5 years) in each trimester, measuring urine Se levels, urine iodine, plasma thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine and triiodothyronine (FT4 and FT3), as well as levels of anti-TPO antibodies. Changes of the measured parameters were assessed over each trimester; thyroid parameters were assessed with relation to Se levels. Urine Se dropped by the third trimester, whereas urine iodine did not change appreciably during pregnancy. TSH and anti-TPO did not show appreciable changes; FT4 and FT3 gradually decreased as the pregnancy advanced. No relationship between urine Se levels and anti-TPO was found. During pregnancy, changes in urine Se levels accompany mild changes in thyroid function.

Left-right asymmetries are also present in echinoderms (rudiment

Left-right asymmetries are also present in echinoderms (rudiment formation), cephalochordates (larval development), tunicates (gut coiling) and vertebrates (visceral organs), and it is known from other studies applying molecular genetic analyses that genes such as nodal, lefty and pitx are involved during development. We discuss our findings in S. kowalevskii in the light of morphological as well as molecular genetic data.”
“Local perivenous anaesthesia has evolved from tumescent anaesthesia which has had a huge impact on liposuction procedures. Perivenous anaesthesia has had a similar

effect on peripheral venous surgery. Safety during its application is further enhanced when combined with skilled ultrasound guidance and astute operator awareness.”
“The biological functional roles of LGR5 (leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5, also known as GPR49), a novel potential Entinostat chemical structure marker for stem-like cells in glioblastoma (GSCs), is poorly acknowledged. Here, we demonstrated that LGR5 was detected in glioblastoma tissues and

GSCs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that LGR5 is closely related to neurogenesis and neuronal functions, and preferentially expressed in Proneural subtype of GBMs. Furthermore, LGR5 is regulated by Proneural factor OLIG2, which is important for both neurogenesis and GSC maintenance. Emricasan Biological experiments in GSC cells validated the bioinformatics analysis results and revealed that LGR5 regulated the tumor sphere formation capacity, an important stem cell property for GSCs. Therefore, LGR5 expression may be functionally correlated with the neurogenic competence, and be regulated by OLIG2 in GSCs.”
“NH and N-protected isoquinolones undergo Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination at the 8-position. Complementary redox-neutral olefination of such isoquinolones using internal alkynes was achieved under ruthenium

“We present a new fragment-based scheme to calculate the excited states of large systems without necessity of a Hartree-Fock (HF) solution of the whole system. This method is based on the implementation of the renormalized excitonic method [M. A. Hajj et al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 224412 (2005)] at ab initio level, which assumes that the excitation of the whole system can be expressed by a linear combination of various local excitations. We decomposed the whole system into several blocks and then constructed the effective Hamiltonians for the intra-and inter-block interactions with block canonical molecular orbitals instead of widely used localized molecular orbitals. Accordingly, we avoided the prerequisite HF solution and the localization procedure of the molecular orbitals in the popular local correlation methods.

05) and higher PMN elastase concentrations (P smaller than 05)

05) and higher PMN elastase concentrations (P smaller than .05) than that of the

basketball athletes after the game. A number of important differences between these 2 sports, such as duration or total aerobic and anaerobic demands, may affect oxidative status. These parameters need to be further examined in order to elucidate the different effects of these selleck chemicals llc 2 sports on postexercise oxidative status.”
“Introduction: Presepsin, the circulating soluble form of CD14 subtype (sCD14-ST) is a new emerging early marker for sepsis. Various cutoff levels of presepsin have been proposed, to discriminate between systemic bacterial and nonbacterial infectious diseases. The aim of this work was to define the reference interval for presepsin according to the CLSI C28-A3c approved guideline. Materials and methods: Reference individuals (N = 200; 120 females) aged 18-75 years (median 39 years), free from inflammatory diseases, were selected for the study. Presepsin concentrations were measured by a commercially

available chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (PATHFAST (TM), Mitsubishi Chemical Europe GmbH, Dusseldorf, Germany). Reference limits were calculated using the non-parametric percentile method. Results: Overall, the reference limits for the presepsin were 55-184 pg/mL (90% confidence find more intervals, CI, were 45 to 58 and 161 to 214, respectively). There were no significant differences between males and females and the presepsin concentrations selleckchem were not even particularly influenced by age. The upper reference limit for the presepsin is much lower than every cut-off limit so far proposed, both for sepsis and also for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Conclusion: Specific decision levels are required to define the diagnostic and prognostic roles of presepsin in different settings of inflammatory

and infectious diseases. Reference values can help to distinguish and quickly rule out healthy subjects or patients with other pathologies.”
“Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is an enzyme that metabolizes asymmetrical N-G, N(G-)dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) and N-G-monomethyl-L-arginine (MMA), which are competitive endogenous inhibitors of NO synthase. However, it remains unknown whether NO itself influences DDAH activity and/or ADMA/MMA contents to regulate NO generation via a biofeedback mechanism. The present study was designed to examine the effects of NO on intracellular ADMA and MMA contents and DDAH gene expression levels and enzymatic activities in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells. The NO donors SNAP and NOR3 did not influence DDAH-1 expression but increased DDAH-2 mRNA and protein levels in concentration-dependent manners. SNAP upregulated DDAH enzymatic activity and reduced the MMA and ADMA contents but did not affect the symmetrical N-G, N’(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine and L-arginine levels, thereby negating a mediatory role for system y(+) in ADMA/MMA downregulation.

Further rapid expansion of the species in Lithuanian lakes and ri

Further rapid expansion of the species in Lithuanian lakes and rivers seems very possible.”
“Specialisms on resources and for niches, leading to specialization, have been construed to be tantamount to speciation and vice versa, while the occurrence of true generalism in nature has also been questioned. We argue that generalism in resource use, biotope occupancy, and niche breadth not only exists, but also forms a crucial part in the evolution of specialists, representing a vital force in speciation and a more effective insurance against extinction. We model the part played by generalism and specialism in speciation and illustrate how a balance may be maintained between the number

of specialists selleck chemicals and generalists within taxa. The balance occurs as an ongoing cycle arising from turnover in the production of specialists and generalists, speciation, and species extinction. The nature of the balance depends Crenigacestat research buy on the type of resources exploited, biotopes, and niche space occupied. These vary between different regions and create taxonomic biases towards generalists or specialists. We envisage that the process may be sympatric/parapatric, although it is more likely

initiated by allopatry driven by abiotic forces. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 104, 725-737.”
“Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material presents a readily available resource in the study of various biomarkers. There has been interest in whether the storage period has significant effect on the extracted macromolecules. Thus, in this study, we investigated if the storage period had an effect on the quantity/quality of the extracted nucleic acids and proteins. We systematically examined the quality/quantity of genomic DNA, total RNA, and total protein in the FFPE blocks of malignant tumors of lung, thyroid, and salivary gland that had been stored over several years. We show that there is no significant difference between macromolecules extracted from blocks stored over 11-12 years, 5-7 years, or 1-2 years in comparison to the current year blocks.”

nucleus accumbens is a forebrain region responsible for drug reward and goal-directed CHIR-99021 research buy behaviors. It has long been believed that drugs of abuse exert their addictive properties on behavior by altering the strength of synaptic communication over long periods of time. To date, attempts at understanding the relationship between drugs of abuse and synaptic plasticity have relied on the high-frequency long-term potentiation model of T.V. Bliss & T. Lomo [(1973) Journal of Physiology, 232, 331356]. We examined synaptic plasticity using spike-timing-dependent plasticity, a stimulation paradigm that reflects more closely the in vivo firing patterns of mouse core nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons and their afferents.

Methods: We conducted a large-scale, case-control study invol

\n\nMethods: We conducted a large-scale, case-control study involving 3938 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 1700 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed

with peripheral blood DNA for MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Statistical significance was estimated by logistic regression analysis.\n\nResults: The MTHFR C677T frequencies of CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 34.5%, 48.5%, and 17% among lung cancer patients, and 31.8%, 50.7%, and 17.5% in the controls, respectively. The SC79 MTHFR 677CT and TT genotype showed a weak protection against lung cancer compared with the homozygous CC genotype, although the results did not reach statistical significance. The age-and gender-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of overall lung cancer was 0.90 (95% confidence

interval (CI), 0.77-1.04) for MTHFR 677 CT and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.71-1.07) for MTHFR 677TT. However, after stratification analysis by histological type, the MTHFR 677CT genotype showed a significantly decreased risk for squamous cell carcinoma (age-and gender-adjusted OR, 0.78; see more 95% CI, 0.64-0.96). The combination of 677 TT homozygous with 677 CT heterozygous also appeared to have a protection effect on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. We observed no significant interaction between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and age and gender or smoking habit.\n\nConclusions: This is the first reported study focusing on the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population. The T allele was found to provide a weak protective association with lung squamous cell

“Pyrimidine analogues such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are widely used in adjuvant and palliative treatment of various solid tumours. However, their administration may be associated with severe adverse events such as myelosuppression, mucositis find more or cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a relatively rare event but its fatal outcomes occur at a rate of 2.2-13.3%. Since 5-fluorouracil is widely used in medical oncology, cardiotoxicity associated with its administration may significantly impair treatment of patients with cancers sensitive to pyrimidine analogues. This article reviews fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity and presents a case report of a young woman who experienced this complication during 5-fluorouracil treatment.”
“Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection. Eicosanoids reflect inflammation, oxidant stress, and vascular health and vary by sex and metabolic parameters. Raltegravir (RAL) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor that may have limited metabolic effects. We assessed urinary F-2-isoprostanes (F-2 -IsoPs), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-M), prostacyclin (PGI-M), and thromboxane B-2 (TxB(2)) in HIV-infected women switching to RAL-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).

“Three experiments were carried out to estimate the calciu

“Three experiments were carried out to estimate the calcium and phosphorus requirements of meat quail. In the first experiment (1-14 days of age), 1,250 meat quails were placed in a 5 x 5 factorial arrangement (calcium levels = 0.65, 0.76, 0.87, 0.98 and 1.09% x phosphorus levels = 0.12, 0.22, 0.32, 0.42 and 0.52%), totaling 25 treatments, with two replications of 25 birds per experimental

unit. The different calcium levels did not affect find more bird performance. Body weight, weight gain and optic density were influenced in a quadratic form by phosphorus levels and the phosphorus requirement was estimated at 0.41%. The levels of 0.65% calcium and 0.41% phosphorus in diet were enough to meet the requirement of initial phase meat quail. In the second experiment (15-35 days of age), 1,500 meat quails were placed in a 5 x 5 factorial arrangement (calcium levels = 0.61, 0.71, 0.81, 0.91 and 1.01% x phosphorus levels = 0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44 and 0.49%), totaling

25 treatments, with two replications of 30 birds per experimental unit. Differences were not observed of the calcium and phosphorus levels on bird performance. Optic density selleck chemicals was influenced in a quadratic form by phosphorus levels and the phosphorus requirement was estimated at 0.41%. In the third experiment, to assess the calcium and phosphorus balance (28-35 days of age), a linear effect was observed on the calcium intake and excretion with the increase in the calcium levels in the diets. The levels of 0.61% calcium and 0.41% phosphorus in the diet were enough to meet the requirement of finishing meat quail. The calcium levels did not affect bird performance at 1-14 and 15-35 days of age, showing, respectively, 0.65 and 0.61% calcium levels were enough to meet the of meat quail requirement. The estimate of 0.41% phosphorus promoted performance of finishing meat quail.”
“An optimization-based, non-invasive, radiation-free method was developed for estimating

subject-specific body segment inertial properties (BSIPs) using a motion capture system and two forceplates. The method works with accurate descriptions of the geometry of the body segments, subject-specific center of pressure (COP) and kinematic data captured during stationary standing, and an optimization procedure. AZD1208 Twelve healthy subjects performed stationary standing in different postures, level walking and squatting while kinematic and forceplate data were measured. The performance of the current method was compared to three commonly used predictive methods in terms of the errors of the calculated ground reaction force, COP and joint moments using the corresponding predicted BSIPs. The current method was found to be capable of producing estimates of subject-specific BSIPs that predicted accurately the important variables in human motion analysis during static and dynamic activities.

These results suggest that the n-hexane fraction of D crassirhiz

These results suggest that the n-hexane fraction of D. crassirhizoma and linoleic acid may be useful for controlling cariogenic biofilms.”
“Segmental identity along the anteroposterior axis of bilateral animals is specified by Hox genes. These genes encode transcription factors, harboring the conserved homeodomain and, generally, a YPWM motif, which binds Hox cofactors and increases Hox transcriptional

specificity in vivo. Here we derive synthetic Drosophila Antennapedia genes, consisting only of the YPWM motif and homeodomain, and investigate their functional role throughout development. Synthetic peptides and full-length Antennapedia proteins cause head-to-thorax transformations in the embryo, as well as antenna-to-tarsus and eye-to-wing transformations in the adult, thus converting the entire head to a mesothorax. This conversion is achieved Z-DEVD-FMK datasheet by repression of genes required for head and antennal development and ectopic activation of genes promoting thoracic and tarsal fates, respectively. Synthetic Antennapedia peptides bind DNA specifically DMH1 concentration and interact

with Extradenticle and Bric-a-brac interacting protein 2 cofactors in vitro and ex vivo. Substitution of the YPWM motif by alanines abolishes Antennapedia homeotic function, whereas substitution of YPWM by the WRPW repressor motif, which binds the transcriptional corepressor Groucho, allows all proteins to act as repressors only. Finally, naturally occurring variations in the size of the linker between the homeodomain and YPWM motif enhance Antennapedia repressive or activating efficiency, emphasizing the importance of linker size, rather than sequence, for specificity. Our results clearly show that synthetic Antennapedia genes are functional in vivo and therefore provide powerful tools for synthetic biology. Moreover, the YPWM motif is necessary-whereas the

entire N terminus of the protein is dispensable-for Antennapedia homeotic function, indicating its Dehydrogenase inhibitor dual role in transcriptional activation and repression by recruiting either coactivators or corepressors.”
“Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease. The authors examined the effects of visit number and timing and automated or manual measurement device on VVV in the placebo arm of the Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) (N=225) and simulations. VVV was assessed using intra-individual standard deviation (SD), range, maximum, coefficient of variation, successive variation, and average real variability of systolic blood pressure. VVV increased with number of visits used to calculate it in the TROPHY population (P for trend <.05 for all metrics) and simulations. Using consecutive visits in TROPHY, average SD was 5.6 mm Hg from 3 visits, 6.8 mm Hg from 7 visits, and 7.7 mm Hg from 18 visits. When 7 visits were spread out across 4 years, the average SD was higher (7.

oxydans WSH-003 with an optimal poly(A/T) tail under the constitu

oxydans WSH-003 with an optimal poly(A/T) tail under the constitutive promoter P-tufB, the titer and the productivity of L-sorbose were enhanced by 36.3% and 25.0%, respectively, in a 1-L fermenter. Immobilization of G. oxydans-sldhAB6 cells further

improved the L-sorbose titer by 33.7% after 20 days of semi-continuous fed-batch fermentation. Conclusions: The artificial poly(A/T) tails could significantly enhance the mRNA abundance of BIX 01294 chemical structure the sldhAB. Immobilized G. oxydans-sldhAB6 cells could further enlarge the positive effect caused by enhanced mRNA abundance of the sldhAB.”
“Antigenic variation of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei operates by monoallelic expression of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from a collection of multiple telomeric expression sites (ESs). Each of these ESs harbours a long polycistronic transcription unit containing several expression site-associated genes (ESAGs). ESAG4 copies encode bloodstream stage-specific adenylyl cyclases (AC) and belong to a larger gene family of around 80 members, the majority of which, termed genes related to ESAG4 (GRESAG4s), are not encoded in ESs and are expressed constitutively

in the life cycle. Here we report that ablation of ESAG4 from the active ES did not affect parasite growth, neither in culture Navitoclax cell line nor upon rodent infection, and did not significantly change total AC activity. In contrast, inducible RNAi-mediated knock-down of an AC subfamily that includes ESAG4 and two ESAG4-like GRESAG4 (ESAG4L) genes, decreased total AC activity and induced a lethal phenotype linked to impaired cytokinesis. In the ?esag4 line compensatory upregulation of apparently functionally redundant ESAG4L genes was observed, suggesting that the ESAG4/ESAG4L-subfamily ACs are involved in the control of cell division. How deregulated adenylyl cyclases or cAMP might impair cytokinesis is discussed.”
“To ascertain the in vitro genotoxicity of danthron and its potential mechanism of action, we performed an Ames test, a cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and a comet assay

in Balb/c GW786034 mouse 3T3 cells. The Ames test revealed that danthron was mutagenic only toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102 in the presence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Danthron (25,50 and 10011 mu g/ml) increased the frequencies of micronuclear cells with or without S9 mix, and the comet length, tail length and Olive tail moment in comet assays without S9 mix in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated the in vitro genotoxicity of danthron and that 3T3 cells are capable of activating danthron. When NADP was replaced by MAD in the S9 mix, danthron remained mutagenic toward strain TA102. The addition of dicoumarol, a DT-diaphorase inhibitor, decreased the number of danthron-induced histidine revertants by 35-39%, indicating that DT-diaphorase is involved in the metabolic activation of danthron in the presence of NADH as an electron donor.

The significant role of rs1801274, rs2857151 and rs2254546 in KD

The significant role of rs1801274, rs2857151 and rs2254546 in KD was found in the multi-variable logistic regression analysis of the SNPs. Two 2-locus and one 3-locus combinations of the SNPs showed significant find more effect on KD with stronger association with KD relative to comparable single SNP or 2-locus combinations. Significant susceptibility to CALs was found in KD patients with high-risk genotypes at both rs1801274 and rs2857151. The meta-analyses first revealed significant risk for CALs in KD patients carrying risk allele of rs11340705,

and the association of rs28493229 with KD was not observed in the Han Chinese. In conclusion, the findings demonstrated that 5 of the 6 genetic loci influence the risk for KD and 3 of them may be involved in secondary CALs formation in Han Chinese. The additive effects of 3 multi-locus combinations on KD/CALs imply that some loci may participate together in certain unknown gene networks related to KD/CALs. Further function studies of the genetic loci are helpful for better understanding the pathophysiology of KD.”
“The gap junction proteins, connexins (Cx), are present in the testis and among them Cx43 play FK228 price an essential role in spermatogenesis. By using an in vitro proliferation model of germ cells and Sertoli cells, we tempted here to clarify the role of Cx43 in the control of

Sertoli and germ cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cx43 was detected in purified preparations of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia and immunolocalized in both cell types identified by vimentin and c-kit, respectively. Inhibition of gap junction coupling by the gap junction inhibitor alpha-GA significantly enhanced BrdU incorporation in Sertoli cells and reduced the number of activated caspase-3 positive germ cells. Similarly, inhibitory Cx43 and pan-Cx mimetic inhibitory peptides increased proliferation of Sertoli cells and stimulated survival of germ cells. Cx32 mimetic inhibitory peptide also stimulated Sertoli cell proliferation without altering germ

cell proliferation and apoptosis. The present results reveal that Cx43 gap junctions between Sertoli cells participate in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and that Cx43 gap junctions between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia are indirectly involved in ISRIB purchase germ cell number increase by controlling germ cell survival rather than germ cell proliferation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Microalbuminuria and C-reactive protein (CRP) are predictors of morbidity and survival in critically ill human patients.\n\nHypothesis/Objectives: To evaluate results of microalbuminuria assays (untimed single-sample urine albumin concentration [U-ALB] and the urine albumin : creatinine ratio [UACR]), serum CRP, and survival predictor index (SPI2) scores as predictors of survival in critically ill dogs.\n\nAnimals: Seventy-eight dogs admitted to intensive care units at University of Tennessee (UT) and Colorado State University (CSU).

Results We find that (1) most treatments trialed in

Results. We find that (1) most treatments trialed in Sonidegib chemical structure vitro and in animal models have not yet resulted in obviously useful functional gains in patients; (2) most clinical trials of restorative treatments after stroke have been limited to small-scale studies; (3) patient recruitment for larger clinical trials is difficult; (4) the determinants of patient outcomes

and what patients want remain complex and ill-defined, so that basic scientists have no clear view of the clinical importance of the problems that they are addressing; (5) research in academic neuroscience centers is poorly integrated with practice in front-line hospitals and the community, where the majority of patients are treated; and (6) partnership with both industry stakeholders and patient pressure groups is poorly developed, at least in the United Kingdom where LCL161 research in the translational restorative neurosciences in stroke depends on public sector research funds and private charities. Conclusions. We argue that interaction between patients, front-line clinicians, and clinical and basic scientists is essential so that they can explore their different priorities, skills, and concerns. These interactions can be facilitated by funding research consortia that include basic and clinical scientists, clinicians and patient/carer representatives with funds

targeted at those impairments that are major determinants of patient and carer outcomes. Consortia would be instrumental in developing a lexicon of common methods, standardized outcome measures, data sharing

and long-term goals. Interactions of this sort would create a research-friendly, rather than only target-led, culture in front-line stroke rehabilitation services.”
“Leucocytes recruitment to tissues is an essential part of the innate immune response and an unregulated process can result in tissue damage. Thus, leucocytes infiltration has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute laminitis. The objectives of this stud were to determine the effect of an antagonist for CXCR1/2, a chemokine receptor for neutrophils attraction on clinical signs and hematological parameters in horses given oligofructose to induce laminitis. Twelve horses were given oligofructose (10g/kg bw PO) in time 0 and divided into two groups: one treated (30mg/kg bw. ICXCR1/2 IV, times 6, 12, 18 e 24 h) and the other not treated. Cardiac and respiratory frequency, rectal temperature, mucous membrane colour, digital pulse, hoof sensitivity and Obel’s grade of lameness were recorded. Values for RBC, WBC and blood glucose, BUN, creatinin, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, GGT, total bilirubin and serum protein concentrations were measured on times 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 h. All the horses given oligofructose developed signs of endotoxemia like diarrhea, fever and leukocytosis and laminitis. Also, CXCR1/2 antagonist treatment did not cause any adverse effects.